Disinfection By-Products in Water Treatment describes new government regulations related to disinfection by-products. It explains the formation of microorganism by-products during water treatment and the methods employed to control them.
Nitrification kinetics were evaluated in bench-scale batch reactors fed with a synthetic wastewater containing approximately 1,000 mg ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N)/L operated at 5, 10, and 20 day solids retention times (SRTs) and with dewatered biosolids supernatant (1,126 to 1,680 mg NH3-N/L) operated at a 20-day SRT. For the 5- and 10-day SRTs, complete nitrification appeared to be inhibited by the presence of un-ionized ammonia and un-ionized nitrous acid. For the 20-day SRT, near complete nitrification was observed for both substrates. Observed ammonium oxidation rates decreased with increasing SRT. Observed yield coefficients were similar for all SRTs and substrates. Fully established steady-state conditions were observed at higher SRTs despite process start-up and operational considerations. Although it may be possible to culture a nitrifier population capable of near-complete nitrification at lower SRTs, the design configuration and operational strategy must mitigate the potential for un-ionized ammonia and un-ionized nitrous acid inhibition (e.g. process start-up at lower concentration with gradual increase to higher concentration, continuous feed operation, etc). Batch bioaugmentation analyses were conducted in the mixed liquor suspended solids and final clarifier effluent from a non-nitrifying activated sludge with seed nitrifiers developed from the 20-day SRT reactors and with biomass from a nitrifying trickling filter facility. Ammonia removal was observed in all bioaugmentation analyses with no apparent lag or acclimation period. Observed ammonium oxidation rates were not significantly different between the seed and batch bioaugmentation reactors. Acclimation does not appear to be a critical obstacle for nitrifier bioaugmentation when environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, pH, etc.) between the seed and bioaugmentation processes are not significantly different.
The series Advances in Industrial Control aims to report and encourage technology transfer in control engineering. The rapid development of control technology impacts all areas of the control discipline. New theory, new controllers, actuators, sensors, new industrial processes, computer methods, new applications, new philosophies..., new challenges. Much of this development work resides in industrial reports, feasibility study papers and the reports of advanced collaborative projects. The series offers an opportunity for researchers to present an extended exposition of such new work in all aspects of industrial control for wider and rapid dissemination. The environmental aspects of all of our society's activities are extremely important if the countryside; the sea and wildernesses are to be fully enjoyed by future generations. Urban waste in all its manifestations presents a particularly difficult disposal problem, which must be tackled conscientiously to prevent long lasting damage to the environment. Technological solutions should be seen as part of the available options. In this monograph, the authors M. R. Katebi, M. A. Johnson and J. Wilkie seek to introduce a comprehensive technological framework to the particular measurement and control problems of wastewater processing plants. Of course the disposal of urban sewage is a long-standing process but past solutions have used options (disposal at sea) which are no longer acceptable. Thus to meet new effluent regulations it is necessary to develop a new technological paradigm based on process control methods, and this is what the authors attempt to provide.
Building on the success of its 1993 predecessor, this second edition of Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution has been thoroughly re-written, updated and extended to provide a complete and authoritative account of modern hydrogeochemistry.
Offering a quantitative approach to the study of groundwater quality and the interaction of water, minerals, gases, pollutants and microbes, this book shows how physical and chemical theory can be applied to explain observed water qualities and variations over space and time. Integral to the presentation, geochemical modelling using PHREEQC code is demonstrated, with step-by-step instructions for calculating and simulating field and laboratory data. Numerous figures and tables illustrate the theory, while worked examples including calculations and theoretical explanations assist the reader in gaining a deeper understanding of the concepts involved.
A crucial read for students of hydrogeology, geochemistry and civil engineering, professionals in the water sciences will also find inspiration in the practical examples and modeling templates.
The multimodal treatment of acute psychiatric illness involves a set of integrated, systematic interventions that stabilize individuals with severe mental illness and help them avoid unnecessary psychiatric hospitalization. This volume focuses on those suffering from schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, severe anxiety, and substance dependence, and provides individual practitioners and professional teams with the tools for responding to crisis and delivering acute care. The authors bolster the text with real-world case examples, helpful diagrams, and printable worksheets.
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