After manpower, energy is the highest operating cost item for most the wastewater utilities. Over the last decade, the implementation of new technologies to meet new effluent limits and water quality standards has considerably increased energy consumption by the sector. The price of energy has also substantially increased in the same period. In North America and Europe, some utilities have reported significant increases in energy costs in recent years, and with oil prices continuing to fluctuate, further substantial increases in operating costs could be expected. Those increases will be compounded by the need to meet additional new regulations that will require energy-intensive treatment processes to achieve tight standards. High energy consumption will affect the wastewater industry worldwide and is inextricably linked to the issue of Climate Change. Through its Optimization Challenge program, the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) is currently participating in the Global Water Research Coalition's (GWRC) project titled Energy Efficiency in the Water Industry: A Compendium of Best Practices and Case Studies. The objective of the GWRC project is to develop a Compendium of best practice (worldwide) in the energy-efficient design and operation of water industry assets. For this project, WERF is serving the role of North America wastewater practice coordinator. Through this assignment, WERF intends to define specific recommendations regarding: * Incremental improvements in energy efficiency through optimization of existing assets and operations * More substantial improvements in energy efficiency from the adoption of novel (but proven at full scale) technologies As part of the GWRC project, WERF has developed this report summarizing existing information on well-established energy optimization/energy recovery best practices, as well as documenting a series of case studies of novel (yet full-scale proven) technologies/practices in wastewater treatment in primarily North America.
Optimizing Stormwater Treatment Practices: A Handbook of Assessment and Maintenance provides the information necessary for developing and operating an effective maintenance program for stormwater treatment. The book offers instructions on how to measure the level of performance of stormwater treatment practices directly and bases proposed maintenance schedules on actual performance and historical maintenance efforts and costs. The inspection methods, which are proven in the field and have been implemented successfully, are necessary as regulatory agencies are demanding evaluations of the performance of stormwater treatment practices. The authors have developed a three-tiered approach that offers readers a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices currently in place.
Industries worldwide have been impacted by environmental regulations, economics, and ultimately consumers, which has led to more thought about the development of sustainable products. The textile industry is no exception. The preparation, dyeing, and finishing of textile fibres requires large amounts of water and other chemicals which may be toxic or hazardous. Green chemistry along with other green technologies may now play a leading role in this process. This book emphasises the importance of plasma treatment as a green and sustainable technology.
A Novel Green Treatment for Textiles: Plasma Treatment as a Sustainable Technology discusses the plasma treatment of textile fibres and its environmental, economic, and social benefits. The book reviews the general properties of textiles and provides a description of the current treatment methods typically used today. The author then introduces the concept of plasma and its application in treating textile materials. The application of plasma as a pretreatment as well as a treatment in dyeing textiles is discussed.
The book summarizes the application of plasma treatment in the printing and finishing of textiles. Also explored is the concept of sustainability and its role in the development of plasma treatments in textile wet processing. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry are incorporated throughout the book.
Using the latest mapping techniques, J.A.A. Jones, Chair of the IGU Commission for Water Sustainability, examines water availability, the impact of climate change and the problems created for water management worldwide as well as possible solutions. Water Sustainability: A Global Perspective is one of the first textbook to meld the physical and human aspects affecting the world's water resources. Part One outlines the challenges and investigates the human factors: population growth; urbanization and pollution; the commercialization of water, including globalization and privatization; and the impacts of war, terrorism and the credit crunch. Part Two examines the physical aspects: the restless water cycle, the impact of past and future climate change and the problems change and unreliability create for water management. Part Three discusses current and future solutions including improved efficiency and water treatment systems, desalination, weather modification and rainwater harvesting, and improved legal and administrative frameworks. Jones concludes by asking how far technical and financial innovations can overcome the limitations of climatic resources and examining the human and environmental costs involved in such developments. This book is the ideal text for any student of water sustainability whether approaching the subject from the point of view of international relations, geography or environmental management.
In-patient treatment for alcoholism going beyond physical withdrawal from the drug has been available in Germany for more than 130 years. Particularly since the Second World War, treatment has broadened and changed in various ways. There are several reasons for this development. The recognition of alcoholism as a disease by the Supreme Court had widespread financial and administrative consequences. Since then in- patient treatment has been funded mainly by the pension insurance institutions. Another reason is the strengthened influence of different psychotherapeutic schools on practice in treatment. At the present time in the Federal Republic of Germany there are about 250 treatment facilities (Suchtfachkliniken, or addiction centres), where around 25000 patients a year receive in-patient treatment. In addition to these, there are the addiction units in psychiatric and general hospitals, of which some offer withdrawal treatment, while others also offer rehabilit- ation treatment. For out-patient treatment there are about 450 special addiction counselling and treatment centres, out-patient facilities available at local health authorities and university hospitals and, further to all this, there are thousands of self-help groups of various kinds. This system of interlocking treatment facilities of various kinds, from the first contact to the after-care stage, is called a treatment network or chain.
Solar Energy Articles
Solar Energy Books