Based on the Body of Knowledge, this book is designed to serve as a practical guide for energy professionals preparing to take AEE's Certified Energy ManagerÂ® (CEMÂ®) examination. The reference presents an overview of the specific areas of expertise referenced in the current Body of Knowledge in a guided preparatory format, including detailed, specifically targeted reference materials. The full scope of energy calculations and problem solving strategies which must be mastered are presented, covering relevant codes and standards, energy accounting and economics, electrical, lighting and HVAC systems, motors and drives, industrial systems, building envelope, building automation and control systems, renewable energy, boiler and steam systems, thermal storage, maintenance, commissioning, alternative financing, and much more. Green Building, LEED and Energy Star programs are also addressed. The appendix provides a broad range of useful reference tables, as well as mathematical formulas specific to each specific area of energy management addressed. While aimed at those taking the ANSI-certified CEM exam, this text is also an excellent reference to be used throughout an energy manager's professional career.
Gamma ray astronomy, the branch of high energy astrophysics that studies the sky in energetic gamma-ray photons, is destined to play a crucial role in the exploration of nonthermal phenomena in the Universe in their most extreme and violent forms. The great potential of this discipline offers impressive coverage of many "hot topics" of modern astrophysics and cosmology, such as the origin of galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays, particle acceleration and radiation processes under extreme astrophysical conditions, and the search for dark matter. The recent observational results and exciting theoretical predictions provide a strong rationale for a deep study of cosmic radiation with forthcoming satellite-borne and ground-based detectors in the so-called very high energy domain of the electromagnetic spectrum above 1010 eV.This invaluable book presents the motivations and highlights the principal objectives of the field, as well as demonstrates its intrinsic links to other branches of high energy astrophysics. Preference is given to three topical areas: (i) origin of cosmic rays; (ii) physics and astrophysics of relativistic jets; (iii) observational gamma ray cosmology. Also, an essential part of the book is devoted to the discussion of the principal mechanisms of production and absorption of energetic gamma-rays in different astrophysical environments, as well as to the description of the detection methods of high energy cosmic gamma-radiation.
This second volume of Energy Resources and Systems is focused on renewable energy resources. Renewable energy mainly comes from wind, solar, hydropower, geothermal, ocean, bioenergy, ethanol and hydrogen. Each of these energy resources is important and growing. For example, high-head hydroelectric energy is a well established energy resource and already contributes about 20% of the world's electricity. Some countries have significant high-head resources and produce the bulk of their electrical power by this method. However, the bulk of the world's high-head hydroelectric resources have not been exploited, particularly by the underdeveloped countries. Low-head hydroelectric is unexploited and has the potential to be a growth area. Wind energy is the fastest growing of the renewable energy resources for the electricity generation. Solar energy is a popular renewable energy resource. Geothermal energy is viable near volcanic areas. Bioenergy and ethanol have grown in recent years primarily due to changes in public policy meant to encourage its usage. Energy policies stimulated the growth of ethanol, for example, with the unintended side effect of rise in food prices. Hydrogen has been pushed as a transportation fuel.
The authors want to provide a comprehensive series of texts on the interlinking of the nature of energy resources, the systems that utilize them, the environmental effects, the socioeconomic impact, the political aspects and governing policies. Volume 1 on Fundamentals and Non Renewable Resources was published in 2009. It blends fundamental concepts with an understanding of the non-renewable resources that dominate today's society. The authors are now working on Volume 3, on nuclear advanced energy resources and nuclear batteries, consists of fusion, space power systems, nuclear energy conversion, nuclear batteries and advanced power, fuel cells and energy storage. Volume 4 will cover environmental effects, remediation and policy.
Solutions to providing long term, stable and economical energy is a complex problem, which links social, economical, technical and environmental issues. It is the goal of the four volume Energy Resources and Systems series to tell the whole story and provide the background required by students of energy to understand the complex nature of the problem and the importance of linking social, economical, technical and environmental issues.
These lecture notes provide a detailed treatment of the thermal energy storage and transport by conduction in natural and fabricated structures. Thermal energy in two carriers, i.e. phonons and electrons - are explored from first principles. For solid-state transport, a common Landauer framework is used for heat flow. Issues including the quantum of thermal conductance, ballistic interface resistance, and carrier scattering are elucidated. Bulk material properties, such as thermal and electrical conductivity, are derived from particle transport theories, and the effects of spatial confinement on these properties are established.
Renewable energy sources such as solar energy were advocated even before the energy crisis in 1973. Subsequent development in solar energy has been remarkable. Indeed it has been one of the most studied and researched topics in recent years. Much of the technology in the utilization of solar energy has been associated with housing and industrial applications, and, to a smaller extent, with commercial use. The nature of the utilization has been related to the philosophy of independence or autonomy in that each housing or industrial unit is made self-sufficient by the installation of solar energy equipment. The general aim of the development of solar energy has been to substitute existing energy sources by solar energy especially among the developed countries in the temperate regions. In developing countries, the application of solar technology has been more acceptable in rural areas where conventional infrastructure is under- developed. A different direction is necessary for the development of solar energy in urban areas. Buildings are inter-related, and have been dependent on the conventional infrastructure. The consumption of energy is many times more than that in the rural areas. A new approach to urban development must be generated, and studies should be made on the feasibility and viability of using solar energy for urban settlements.
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