This manual is intended as a source document for individuals responsible for improving the performance of an existing, non-complying wastewater treatment facility. Described are: 1) methods to evaluate an existing facility's capability to achieve improved performance, 2) a process for systematically improving its performance, and 3) details on how to modify the facility to achieve the required levels of performance. The manual emphasizes meeting National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements for secondary treatment facilities (30 mg/L BODs and TSS). Though the manual is not intended to describe cost saving options or to present alternatives for designing new facilities for expansion purposes (i.e., to provide increased hydraulic and/or BOD loading capacity), in some cases the approach and modifications described may result in cost savings and/or increased capacity.
The series Advances in Industrial Control aims to report and encourage technology transfer in control engineering. The rapid development of control technology impacts all areas of the control discipline. New theory, new controllers, actuators, sensors, new industrial processes, computer methods, new applications, new philosophies..., new challenges. Much of this development work resides in industrial reports, feasibility study papers and the reports of advanced collaborative projects. The series offers an opportunity for researchers to present an extended exposition of such new work in all aspects of industrial control for wider and rapid dissemination. The environmental aspects of all of our society's activities are extremely important if the countryside; the sea and wildernesses are to be fully enjoyed by future generations. Urban waste in all its manifestations presents a particularly difficult disposal problem, which must be tackled conscientiously to prevent long lasting damage to the environment. Technological solutions should be seen as part of the available options. In this monograph, the authors M. R. Katebi, M. A. Johnson and J. Wilkie seek to introduce a comprehensive technological framework to the particular measurement and control problems of wastewater processing plants. Of course the disposal of urban sewage is a long-standing process but past solutions have used options (disposal at sea) which are no longer acceptable. Thus to meet new effluent regulations it is necessary to develop a new technological paradigm based on process control methods, and this is what the authors attempt to provide.
Disinfection By-Products in Water Treatment describes new government regulations related to disinfection by-products. It explains the formation of microorganism by-products during water treatment and the methods employed to control them.
This project examined the development of ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for the protection of wildlife for mercury. Mercury is considered a serious risk to wildlife in many areas. As a result, the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative and others have developed AWQC. These AWQC have been controversial, however, because (1) the AWQC were single values that did not account for site-specific conditions; (2) derivation of the AWQC relied on a single NOAEL, and (3) the AWQC had an unknown level of conservatism because of reliance on both average and conservative assumptions and uncertainty factors. Rather than develop a single value AWQC for total mercury, we derive an AWQC model that explicitly incorporates factors controlling bioavailability, methylation rates and bioaccumulation in the aquatic environment (e.g., pH, DOC, sulfate). To derive our AWQC model, field data was collected including numerous water quality parameters and total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in whole body fish tissue from 31 lakes in Ontario and an additional 10 lakes in Nova Scotia. An independent dataset consisting of 51 water bodies in the United States was then used to confirm the validity and robustness of the AWQC model. Next we combined the results of chronic-feeding studies with similar protocols and endpoints, in a meta-analysis to derive a dose-response curve for mink exposed to mercury in the diet. Using this approach, one can derive an LD5 or other similar endpoint that can then be used as the basis for deriving -wildlife AWQC. In the final step, we used a probabilistic risk model to estimate the concentrations of methylmercury in water that would lead to levels in fish sufficient for there to be a 10% probability of exceeding the mink LD5. This analysis was repeated for various combinations of pH and DOC. The result is an AWQC model for mercury for the protection of wildlife that can be used for a variety of site-specific conditions. This publication can also be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below
To date, the theoretical development of q-calculus has rested on a non-uniform basis. Generally, the bulky Gasper-Rahman notation was used, but the published works on q-calculus looked different depending on where and by whom they were written. This confusion of tongues not only complicated the theoretical development but also contributed to q-calculus remaining a neglected mathematical field. This book overcomes these problems by introducing a new and interesting notation for q-calculus based on logarithms.For instance, q-hypergeometric functions are now visually clear and easy to trace back to their hypergeometric parents. With this new notation it is also easy to see the connection between q-hypergeometric functions and the q-gamma function, something that until now has been overlooked. The book covers many topics on q-calculus, including special functions, combinatorics, and q-difference equations. Apart from a thorough review of the historical development of q-calculus, this book also presents the domains of modern physics for which q-calculus is applicable, such as particle physics and supersymmetry, to name just a few.
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