This new edition of Thermal Energy Storage Systems offers the up-to-date coverage needed to address recent R&D, including much of the authors' own work, which furthers more energy efficient and sustainable technological methods and solutions. New material also covers analysis, design and performance improvement as well as life-cycle costing and assessment. The authors address real-life technical and operational problems, enabling the reader to gain an understanding of the fundamental principles and the practical applications of thermal energy storage technology. The book has been thoroughly revised and updated for use as a text on alternative and renewable energy courses, with case studies updated as well as problems added at the end of each chapter. Enables the reader to gain an understanding of the fundamental principles and practical applications of thermal energy storage (TES) technology Includes state-of-the-art descriptions of many facets of TES systems and applications Summarises significant new research on energy efficient and sustainable technological methods and solutions Allows students to explore the potential of TES systems via computer simulations and to hence appreciate the technical details involved in a TES system design Significantly revised for use as a graduate text on emerging renewable and alternative energy courses, including updated case studies, worked-out examples, problems and solutions at the end of each chapter
These lecture notes provide a detailed treatment of the thermal energy storage and transport by conduction in natural and fabricated structures. Thermal energy in two carriers, i.e. phonons and electrons - are explored from first principles. For solid-state transport, a common Landauer framework is used for heat flow. Issues including the quantum of thermal conductance, ballistic interface resistance, and carrier scattering are elucidated. Bulk material properties, such as thermal and electrical conductivity, are derived from particle transport theories, and the effects of spatial confinement on these properties are established.
* Explains how to use nuclear process heat for industrial applications, especially process heat for hydrogen production * Illuminates the issue of waste heat in nuclear plants, offering a vision for how it can be used in combined-cycle plants * Undertakes the thermal analysis of intermediate heat exchangers throughout the life cycle, from the design perspective through operational and safety assurance stages This book describes recent technological developments in next generation nuclear reactors that have created renewed interest in nuclear process heat for industrial applications. The author's discussion mirrors the industry's emerging focus on combined cycle Next Generation Nuclear Plants' (NGNP) seemingly natural fit in producing electricity and process heat for hydrogen production. To utilize this process heat, engineers must uncover a thermal device that can transfer the thermal energy from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant in the most performance efficient and cost effective way possible. This book is written around that vital quest, and the author describes the usefulness of the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) as a possible solution. The option to transfer heat and thermal energy via a single-phase forced convection loop where fluid is mechanically pumped between the heat exchangers at the nuclear and hydrogen plants is presented, and challenges associated with this tactic are discussed. As a second option, heat pipes and thermosyphons, with their ability to transport very large quantities of heat over relatively long distance with small temperature losses, are also examined.
A unique guide to the application and theory of photothermal spectroscopy.<br> <br> This book debunks the myth that photothermal spectroscopy is too complicated for practical application to chemical analysis, and demonstrates the advantages this technique has over conventional spectroscopy in facilitating extremely sensitive measurements of optical absorption in homogeneous media. The book covers the subject from the ground up, lists all practical considerations needed to obtain accurate results, and provides a working knowledge of the various methods in use--including photo acoustics and photopyroelectric techniques.<br> <br> Bringing together a wealth of information that has been scattered throughout the professional literature, Photothermal Spectroscopy Methods for Chemical Analysis covers methods and information that should be known to every analytical chemist, including: <br> * Descriptions of photothermal spectroscopy using a consistent mathematical language <br> * Helpful examples from the literature of analytical applications and current research <br> * Illustrations of all important points, consistent equations, and numerous original figures <br> * A discussion of laser technology and how it is used to obtain accurate results from extremely small samples of a few molecules <br> * Everything spectroscopists need to know to construct their own apparatus and use it to conduct successful experiments <br> * Tips on how to interpret experimental results effectively when using nonlinear processes and in many other situations in photothermal spectroscopy <br> * Considerations for further study of heterogeneous sample analysis<br> * Unified nomenclature of the patchwork of terms used by researchers in analytical and physical chemistry, physics, and optical engineering <br> * Equations that are derived with the aid of a symbolic language processor to ensure correct results<br> <br> <br> Photothermal spectroscopy has seen major advances since the advent of laser technology twenty-five years ago. It is now possible, using a laser's coherent and powerful output, to obtain extremely sensitive measurements of optical absorption that exceed those of mass spectroscopy by two or three times, and produce accurate results from only a few molecules.<br> <br> Focusing on samples in homogeneous media, this book provides a unique guide--incorporating theory and application--to all available photothermal spectroscopy techniques for chemical and material analysis. It uses a systematic approach in its comprehensive treatment of the theory, and covers all the necessary background material, from laser optics to fluid dynamics.<br> <br> This accessible text describes the various processes used to detect thermal perturbation of a sample, ranging from optical excitation to nonlinear processes, and covers all optical principles necessary to understand photothermal spectroscopy. When dealing with hydrodynamic equations that govern energy transfer in the sample matrix, it provides an original impulse-response approach. In addition, the book explains how to construct the apparatus one needs to conduct successful photothermal experiments, since commercial equipment is not available as in conventional spectrophotometry.<br> <br> Throughout, this book draws on information from a wide range of fields, including analytical spectroscopy, measurement physics, physical optics, and chemical dynamics. Providing clear explanations at every turn, the author demonstrates a complete understanding of the theory and applications as a firm basis for the correct interpretation of experimental results.<br> <br> For analytical chemists, as well as for students at the graduate level, Photothermal Spectroscopy Methods for Chemical Analysis is an unmatched resource that develops a consistent mathematical basis for signal description, consolidates previous theories, and provides invaluable insight into laser technology.
Cutting carbon emissions is urgent but very challenging in wealthy democracies. Energy for the Future analyzes the changing contexts, imperatives and fault lines, and proposes ways forwards. Greater public engagement and a new approach to markets are vital, but traditional concerns with energy security and economic efficiency cannot be set aside.
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