As the chemical process industry is among the most energy demanding sectors, chemical engineers are endeavoring to contribute towards sustainable future. Due to the limitation of fossil fuels, the need for energy independence, as well as the environmental problem of the greenhouse gas effect, there is a large increasing interest in the research and development of chemical processes that require less capital investment and reduced operating costs and lead to high eco-efficiency. The use of heat pumps is a hot topic due to many advantages, such as low energy requirements as well as an increasing number of industrial applications. Therefore, in the current book, authors are focusing on use of heat pumps in the chemical industry, providing an overview of heat pump technology as applied in the chemical process industry, covering both theoretical and practical aspects: working principle, applied thermodynamics, theoretical background, numerical examples and case studies, as well as practical applications. The worked-out examples have been included to instruct students, engineers and process designers about how to design various heat pumps used in the industry. Reader friendly resources namely relevant equations, diagrams, figures and references that reflect the current and upcoming heat pump technologies, will be of great help to all readers from the chemical and petrochemical industry, biorefineries and other related areas.
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The subject of the book is uid dynamics and heat transfer in micro-channels. This problem is important for understanding the complex phenomena associated with single- and two-phase ows in heated micro-channels. The challenge posed by high heat uxes in electronic chips makes thermal management a key factor in the development of these systems. Cooling of mic- electronic components by new cooling technologies, as well as improvement of the existing ones, is becoming a necessity as the power dissipation levels of integrated circuits increases and their sizes decrease. Miniature heat sinks with liquid ows in silicon wafers could signi cantly improve the performance and reliability of se- conductor devices. The improvements are made by increasing the effective thermal conductivity, by reducing the temperature gradient across the wafer, by reducing the maximum wafer temperature, and also by reducing the number and intensity of localized hot spots. A possible way to enhance heat transfer in systems with high power density is to change the phase in the micro-channels embedded in the device. This has motivated a number of theoretical and experimental investigations covering various aspects of heat transfer in micro-channel heat sinks with phase change. The ow and heat transfer in heated micro-channels are accompanied by a n- ber of thermohydrodynamic processes, such as liquid heating and vaporization, bo- ing, formation of two-phase mixtures with a very complicated inner structure, etc., which affect signi cantly the hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of the co- ing systems.
This book details a unique training evaluation approach developed by David J. Basarab, Sr. currently the Manager of Evaluation at Motorola University. This approach was developed in part based on information from his graduate coursework with Dr. Darrell K. Root, professor of program evaluation and educational administration at the University of Dayton. It enabled Motorola to evaluate their corporate training programs to determine whether money spent on training was an investment or an expense. This evaluation approach is also significant in determining either the effectiveness of or the opportunities to improve corporate training programs. In this text, The Training Evaluation Process, David Basarab and Darrell Root provide commercial industry training with a step-by-step approach to use when evaluating training progrruns, thus allowing training to be viewed as an investment rather than an expense. This text focuses on assessing training programs, so that they may be improved. This approach provides a successful procedure to use when evaluating training programs. Included in the text is a comprehensive explanation of the evaluation model developed by D. L. Kirkpatrick (Kirkpatrick, D. L., November 1959) in which he described four levels of evaluating training progrruns: Level 1 -Reaction: Evaluate to learn participants' perception to the training program. Level 2 -Learning: Evaluate to determine whether participants have learned the course subject matter. Level 3 -Behavior: Evaluate participants' use of newly acquired job skills on the job. Level 4 -Results: Evaluate the organizational impact of training on company's workforce.
Examining the ways in which national theatres have formed and evolved over time, this new collection highlights the difficulties these institutions encounter today, in an environment where nationalism and national identity are increasingly contested by global, transnational and local agendas, and where economic forces create conflicting demands.
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